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Contoh Soal dan Pembahasan bagian Reading TOEFL

Selasa, 07 Mei 2013

Reading Comprehension
Questions 1-10
Aspirin’s origins go back at least as early as 1758. In that year, Englishman Edward Stone noticed a distinctive bitter flavor in the bark of the willow tree. To Stone, this particular bark seemed to have much in common with “Peruvian Bark,” which had been used medicinally since the 1640s to bring down fevers and to treat malaria. Stone decided to test the effectiveness of the willow bark. He obtained some, pulverized it into tiny pieces, and conducted experiments on its properties. His tests demonstrated that this pulverized willow bark was effective both in reducing high temperatures and in relieving aches and pains. In 1763, Stone presented his findings to the British Royal Society.

Several decades later, further studies on the medicinal value of the willow bark were being conducted by two Italian scientists. These chemists, Brugnatelli and Fontana, determined that the active chemical that was responsible for the medicinal characteristics in the willow bark was the chemical salicin, which is the active ingredient of today’s aspirin.

The name “aspirin” is the trade name of the drug based on the chemical salicin, properly known as acetylsalicylic acid. The trade name “aspirin” was invented for the drug in the 1890s by the Bayer Drug Company in Germany. The first bottles of aspirin actually went on sale to the public just prior to the turn of the century, in 1899.

1.         According to the passage, aspirin originated
(A)   no later than 1758
(B)   sometime after 1758
(C)   definitely sometime in 1758
(D)   no earlier than 1758

2.         It can be inferred from the passage that Peruvian Bark
(A)   caused fevers
(B)   was ineffective in treating malaria
(C)   was described to the British Royal Society by Stone
(D)   was in use prior to aspirin

3.         The pronoun “it” in line 5 refers to
(A)   malaria
(B)   willow bark
(C)   effectiveness
(D)   the British Royal Society

4.         The word “properties” in line 6 could best be replaced by
(A)   ownership
(B)   body
(C)   characteristics
(D)   materials

5.         What did the willow bark look like after Stone prepared it for his experiments?
(A)   It was in large chunks.
(B)   It was a thick liquid.
(C)   It was a rough powder.
(D)   It was in strips of bark.

6.         The Italian chemists mentioned in the passage most probably conducted their studies on willow bark
(A)   in the 1750s
(B)   in the 1760s
(C)   in the 1770s
(D)   in the 1780s

7.         What is true about Brugnatelli and Fontana?
(A)   They were from Italy.
(B)   They added a chemical to the willow bark.
(C)   They conducted studies on the willow bark.
(D)   They were medical doctors.

8.         The expression “prior to” in line 14 could best be replaced by
(A)   at
(B)   before
(C)   during
(D)   after

9.         The word “turn” in line 15 could best be replaced by
(A)   spin
(B)   corner
(C)   change
(D)   reversal

10.       Where in the passage does the author name the scientific compound that makes up aspirin?
(A)   Lines 2-4
(B)   Line 7
(C)   Lines 8-9
(D)   Lines 14-15

Questions 11-20

Herman Melville, an American author best known today for his novel Moby Dick, was actually more popular during his lifetime for some of his other works. He traveled extensively and used the knowledge gained during his travels as the basis for his early novels. In 1837, at the age of eighteen, Melville signed as a cabin boy on a merchant ship that was to sail from his Massachusetts home to Liverpool, England. His experiences on this trip served as a basis for the novel Redburn (1849). In 1841 Melville set out on a whaling ship headed for the South Seas. After jumping ship in Tahiti, he wandered around the islands of Tahiti and Moorea. This South Sea island sojourn was a backdrop to the novel Omoo (1847). After three years away from home, Melville joined up with a U.S. naval frigate that was returning to the eastern United States around Cape Horn. The novel White Jacket (1850) describes this lengthy voyage as a navy seaman.

With the publication of these early adventure novels, Melville developed a strong and loyal following among readers eager for his tales of exotic places and situations. However, in 1851, with the publication of Moby Dick, Melville’s popularity started to diminish. Moby Dick, on one level the saga of the hunt for the great white whale, was also a heavily symbolic allegory of the heroic struggle of humanity against the universe. The public was not ready for Melville’s literary metamorphosis from romantic adventure to philosophical symbolism. It is ironic that the novel that served to diminish Melville’s popularity during his lifetime is the one for which he is best known today.

    The main subject of the passage is

(A)   Melville’s travels
(B)   the popularity of Melville’s novels
(C)   Melville’s personal background
(D)  Moby Dick

     According to the passage, Melville’s early novels were

(A)   published while he was traveling
(B)   completely fictional
(C)   all about his work on whaling ships
(D)  based on his travels

     In what year did Melville’s book about his experiences as a cabin boy appear?
(A)   1837            (C)  1841
(B)   1847            (D)  1849

     The word “basis” in line 3 is closest in meaning to

(A)   Foundation
(B)   message
(C)   Bottom
(D)  theme

     The passage implies that Melville stayed in Tahiti because
(A)    he had unofficially left his ship
(B)    he was on leave while his ship was in port
(C)    he had finished his term of duty
(D)   he had received permission to take a vacation in Tahiti

     A “frigate” in line 10 is probably
(A)    an office
(B)    a ship
(C)    a troop
(D)   a train

    How did the publication of Moby Dick affect Melville’s popularity?

(A)   His popularity increased immediately.
(B)   It had no effect on his popularity.
(C)   It caused his popularity to decrease.
(D)  His popularity remained as strong as ever.

     According to the passage, Moby Dick is

(A)    a romantic adventure
(B)    a single-faceted work
(C)    a short story about a whale
(D)   symbolic of humanity fighting the environment

     The word “metamorphosis” in line 15 is closest in meaning to

(A)    circle
(B)    change
(C)    mysticism
(D)   descent

     The passage would most likely be assigned reading in a course on

(A)    nineteenth-century novels
(B)    American history
(C)    Oceanography
(D)   modern American literature

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 4-6)

Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess.

A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra V. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.

    This passage would probably be assigned reading in a course on
(A)    American law
(B)    psychiatric healing
(C)    parapsychology
(D)   philosophy

PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-7)

Chamber music received its name because it was originally intended to be performed in small rooms in private homes rather than huge concert halls or theaters. Today it has evolved into small ensemble music in which each performer in the ensemble plays an individual part.

The compositions written for this type of performance can easily be classified into three distinct periods, each with its style of music and instrumentation. In the earliest period (1450-1650), the viol and other instrumental families developed considerably, and instrumental music took its first steps toward equal footing with vocal music. In the second period (1650-1750), trio sonatas dominated. These ensemble compositions were often written for two violins and a cello; the harpsichord was also featured in various compositions of this period. In the modern period (after 1750), the preponderance of chamber music was written for the string quartet, an ensemble composed of two violins, a viola, and a cello.

    Where in the passage does the author discuss the modern definition of chamber music?
(A)    Lines 3-4
(B)    Lines 4-5
(C)    Lines 8-9
(D)    Lines 9-11

    6. Where in the passage does the author discuss the period when ensembles for three instruments predominated?
(A)    Lines 2-3
(B)    Lines 4-5
(C)    Lines 7-9
(D)   Lines 9-11

    Where in the passage does the author mention music written for four strings?
(A)    Lines 2-3
(B)    Lines 4-5
(C)    Lines 7-9
(D)   Lines 9-11

The next hormone is epinephrine, or adrenaline. This hormone is a natural secretion of the adrenal glands in the human body. Its primary function in the human body is to assist the body in coping with sudden surges of stress. When a person unexpectedly finds himself in a stressful situation filled with fear or anger, a large amount of epinephrine is released into the blood and the body responds with an increased heartbeat, higher blood pressure, and conversion of glycogen into glucose for energy to enable the body to deal with the stress.

It is possible to extract epinephrine from the adrenal glands of animals or to synthesize it chemically in order to put it to further use. It is used in the treatment of severe asthma, where it relaxes the large muscles of the bronchi, the large air passages leading into the lungs. It is also used in cases of severe allergic reaction or cardiac arrest.

    The paragraph preceding the passage most probably discusses

(A)    further uses of epinephrine
(B)    the treatment of cardiac arrest
(C)    a different hormone
(D)   the secretions of the adrenal glands

    What is another name for epinephrine?
(A)    Adrenal glands
(B)    Stressful situation
(C)    Bronchi
(D)   Adrenaline

    Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a result of the release of epinephrine in the blood?
(A)    Severe asthma
(B)    An increase in blood pressure
(C)    Higher heartbeat
(D)   Increased energy

    It is implied in the passage that increased heartbeat
A)    harms the body
(B)    causes the release of epinephrine into the body
(C)    is helpful in combating the stressful situation
(D)   is useful in treating asthma

    The passage indicates that epinephrine is used in the treatment of all of the following EXCEPT
(A)    asthma
(B)    high blood pressure
(C)    serious allergic reactions
(D)   heart problems

    What are the “bronchi” in line 10?
(A)    A large muscle
(B)    Air passages
(C)    The lungs
(D)   Part of the heart

    Which of the following best expresses the organization of the information in the passage?
(A)    Epinephrine and adrenaline
(B)    Various effects of epinephrine on the body
(C)    Causes of sudden stress
(D)   Epinephrine’s natural functions and further applications

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